Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH)

Definition:

A nonlinear stochastic process, where the variance is time-varying, and a function of the past variance. ARCH processes have frequency distributions which have high peaks at the mean and fat-tails, much like fractal distributions. The ARCH model was invented by Robert Engle. The Generalized ARCH (GARCH) model is the most widely used and was pioneered by Tim Bollerslev. See: Fractal Distributions.

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Copyright © 2011 Campbell R. Harvey, Professor of Finance, Fuqua School of Business at Duke University

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Pro forma Earnings

Often used in two ways. First, pro forma earnings refers to projections of earnings. This is often used internally or on a road show for an IPO. Second, it refers to a way of reporting earnings that... Read More

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