Japan raised its consumption tax rate in 1997 - a recession soon
followed, as well as a deflationary spiral which has lasted to this
day. With this month's hike in the consumption tax from 5% to 8%,
investors are fearful that history may repeat itself.
This fear ignores several key differences. First, there's no
Asian currency crisis to deal with now, unlike in 1997. Second,
Japan's banks are in much better shape than during the 1990s when
they held off writing off bad debts. Third, the central bank is
engaged in a massive experiment in monetary stimulus this time
around. Finally, today's labor market is very tight, compared to
The last point is crucial and goes to the heart of one of the
biggest myths about Abenomics. That is, with or without Shinzo Abe,
Japan's sharply declining working-age population was always going
to lead to a tight labor market, resulting in wage pressure and
higher inflation. Today's post will attempt to show that the
tipping point for higher wages is near.
In addition, you should see even more stimulus enacted in the
coming months as the economy slows. This stimulus - of a gargantuan
amount in aggregate - combined with higher wages, may be enough to
push inflation higher.
But Japan's government and central bank are likely to get much
more inflation than they bargained for. This risks a sharp spike in
interest rates and a bond market rout, with investors fleeing amid
concerns about the government's ability to repay its enormous debt
In the ultimate irony, it may not be the deflationary bogey man
which finally kills the Japanese economy. Rather, it could be the
inflation so beloved by central bankers and economists that does
Myths of a Japanese recovery
It's amazing the extent to which mainstream commentary has
embraced the narrative that Abenomics is working and the Japanese
economy is recovering. That's despite almost all of the recent
economic data suggesting otherwise.
Let's run through this data. First, Japan posted its
largest-ever trade deficit during the fiscal year to March. The gap
between the value of Japan's exports and its imports grew by more
than two-thirds to 13.7 trillion yen (US$134 billion). Gains in
exports were almost solely due to the declining yen as export
volumes were only up 0.6% for the year. And during the January to
March quarter, export volumes were actually down 0.2% in
Meanwhile, import volumes increased 2.4% for the year. But the
yen value of imports rose 17.3%. The import strength was partially
due to the shutdown of all of the country's nuclear reactors after
the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011. That's meant that 30% of
Japan's power needs has been taken offline. And utilities have had
to buy from overseas to plug the gap, with a lower yen making it
much more expensive to do so.
In addition, many news publications hailed Tokyo consumer prices
rising at the fastest pace in 22 years in April. Another sign of
Abenomics working, apparently. Or not, as the case may be.
Because the increase was solely due to the implementation of the
rise in the consumption tax rate. Strip the impact of the tax out,
and tax-adjusted consumer prices grew just 1% versus the 2.7%
headline number. The tax-adjusted figure was unchanged from the
previous month and below market expectations, as the below chart
It's also becoming clear that corporates aren't buying into
Abenomics. The Bank of Japan's March Tankan survey was broadly
weaker than expected. The weakness in the auto sector was notable
(down 38pt to -2) reflecting a large retracement post the VAT
The lack of business confidence is reflected in capital
expenditure numbers. Core machinery orders fell 8.8% in February
after a 13.4% rise in January. Combining the first two months of
the year, orders were 0.6% lower than the October-December
Consumer sentiment is also poor. The Economic Watchers Survey
for March reported a 6.8pt month-on-month increase in the household
activity-related index for current economic conditions. There's
little doubt the increase reflected last-minute demand before the
consumption tax rise.
Meanwhile, the index for future economic conditions fell 5.4pts
in March, after a 10.1pt drop in February. In other words,
consumers aren't confident about the economy going forward.
Part of the reason for the pessimism is likely due to the fact
that wages are still going nowhere. Total cash earnings were flat
in February, after being down 0.2% in January.
There have been a couple of positive data points. Retails sales
were brisk in the lead-up to the tax rise. Unfortunately, the signs
aren't as good post the tax hike going into effect. Isetan
Mitsubishi, an upmarket department store chain, reported a 13%
decline in sales in the first six days of this month.
The other bright spot has been on the jobs front. The
unemployment rate declined 0.1pt to 3.6% in February, as the total
number of people employed expanded by 130,000.
All up, the economic data have shown a marked deterioration over
the past 3-6 months. And investors are worried that this trend will
More stimulus soon
A further slowing in the economy will almost certainly push the
Bank of Japan (BoJ) into printing more money in a bid to kick-start
growth. Probably by July this year.
Earlier this month, the BoJ held off from adopting more
stimulus, citing a moderate economic recovery and progress towards
its 2% inflation rate target (currently 1.3%). It suggested capital
expenditure in the public and private sectors had picked up and
household consumption and investment had proven resilient.
As a consequence, the BoJ voted unanimously to keep monetary
stimulus at an annual pace of 60-70 trillion yen (US$583-680
billion). This came as no surprise as central bank officials had
hinted on several occasions that the economic "recovery" would be
strong enough to withstand the VAT hike.
In our view, the BoJ would make even the best PR agency blush.
All of its talk of economic recovery makes for great propaganda but
bears little resemblance to the facts. Because of this, you can
soon expect a U-turn and for more stimulus to be approved.
And to put the Japanese stimulus into perspective, it's
currently around 3x the quantum of the U.S.-equivalent versus the
size of its economy. It's an extraordinary experiment of a scale
rarely seen in modern times (and given the money printing habits of
today's central bankers, that's saying something).
Wage growth around the corner
However, we think higher inflation is coming to Japan, with or
without an economic recovery. To understand why, let's provide some
There are a number of myths regarding Japan's economic
performance since 1990. I agree with the very smart
, who suggests Japan's economy hasn't done badly since that time.
Judging the country's economy purely by GDP is a mistake, as Japan
has a falling and ageing population (remember GDP equals
productivity growth plus working-age population growth). If you
adjust for this, Japan has actually been the best performing of all
Group of Five leading economies. That is, Japan's GDP at constant
prices per working person has grown the most.
And here's what will surprise most people. By this same measure,
Japan has outperformed the U.S. economy over the past 15 years.
This leads to a second myth: that deflation is the principal
cause of Japan's slowing GDP. As Smithers shows, demographics have
played a larger part. After all, Japan's working-age population
peaked in 1997.
I will add a final myth to Smithers' list: that massive money
printing is needed to beat deflationary forces in Japan. On the
contrary. Our view is that an extraordinarily tight labor force is
almost guaranteed to lead to wage growth over the next 2-3 years.
Japan's working age population has decreased from 69 million in
June 1997 to 65 million now. Those aged 15-24 have plummeted from
8.9 million to 4.9 million over the same period.
This has contributed to the falling unemployment rate, as noted
above. The number of open positions per job seeker in Japan is
1.04. JP Morgan suggests that ratio will rise to 1.5 by 2017, the
highest since 1974.
Now, this tight labor force hasn't yet resulted in higher wages.
The Prime Minister is pressuring companies to raise wages in his
bid to lift inflation. But our view is that this isn't necessary:
ageing demographics and the declining working-age population will
do the trick anyhow.
Put simply, the odds favour Japan getting higher inflation. It's
a matter of when, not if. Abenomics will simply serve to accelerate
Positives from inflation...
Mainstream economists bow at the altar of inflation. Apparently,
inflation is central to economic growth. Not only does this defy
common sense but also many periods throughout history where strong
economic growth has been accompanied by deflation.
That said, higher inflation in Japan may provide some benefits,
at least initially:
- Theoretically, employers should be able to hire and fire more
easily. This is a huge issue in Japan given its traditionally
rigid labor force. Corporate restructuring has been painfully
slow as a consequence.
- Higher inflation will help Japan deal with its enormous debt
load. Increased inflation leads to higher nominal GDP, while
debts and interest payments remain the same, thus reducing the
overall burden. Japan needs this given public debt to GDP of
close to 245%.
- Higher wages will boost consumption in the short-term. With
consumption accounting for 60% of GDP, that matters.
- Given a lower yen, it should boost the fortunes of
- For believers in the "wealth effect," equities should benefit
from increased inflation. Many historical studies show inflation
helps equities up to a certain point.
...Offset by bond market risks
Here's the rub though: the stimulus, when combined with wage
growth, is likely to lead to much higher inflation than the BOJ
bargained for. And this risks currency and bond market carnage.
That may sound hyperbolic but the maths dictates such an
As most know, Japan's debt burden is extraordinary. Total debt
to GDP tops 500%. Government expenditure is 20x government
revenues. Interest on government debt is 25% of government
Everyone knows Japan will never repay this debt. It could choose
to cut back government spending, but this would cause a recession
or depression, given the size of the necessary budget cuts.
Instead, it's choosing the more politically palatable option: to
attempt to inflate away the debts.
But higher inflation carries substantial risks also. If
inflation spikes, so too will interest rates. That will mean higher
rates on government debt. If rates rise to just 2%, interest
expenses on government debt will increase to 80% of government
revenue. Any rise in economic growth won't be enough to offset this
burden. If this scenario plays out, there's a high likelihood that
Japan's bond market will blow up.
Many will suggest this can't happen as domestic savers hold more
than 90% of government bonds. That ignores two things. First, these
savers are ageing and are having to sell bonds to fund their
retirements. Second, Japan's deteriorating current account means
foreigners will be asked to fund a greater part of the government's
finances. I can tell you that these foreigners will demand much
higher rates than those currently on offer.
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